The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models


The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models

Kerry Emanuel
David J. Raymond
Copyright: 1993
ISBN: 9781878220134
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Title information

Pages: 246
Language: English
Publisher: American Meteorlogical Society
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The monograph is divided into six parts. Part I provides an overview of the problem, including descriptions of cumulus clouds and the effects of ensembles of cumulus clouds on mass, momentum, and vorticity distributions. A review of closure assumptions is also provided. A review of "classical" convection schemes in widespread use is provided in Part II. The special problems associated with the representation of convection in mesoscale models are discussed in Part III, along with descriptions of some of the commonly used mesoscale schemes. Part IV covers some of the problems associated with the representation of convection in climate models, while the parameterization of slantwise convection is the subject of Part V. The monograph concludes with a single paperbound describing some recent and very promising efforts to use explicit numerical simulations of ensembles of convective clouds to test cumulus representations.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Closure Assumptions in the Cumulus Parameterization Problem

Chapter 2. Observational Constraints on Cumulus Parameterizations

Chapter 3. Trade Cumulus Observations

Chapter 4. Impacts of Cumulus Convection on Thermodynamic Fields

Chapter 5. The Nature of Adjustment in Cumulus Cloud Fields

Chapter 6. Momentum Transport by Convective Bands: Comparisons of Highly Idealized Dynamical Models to Observations

Chapter 7. Cumulus Effects on Vorticity

Chapter 8. Convective Adjustment

Chapter 9. The Betts-Miller Scheme

Chapter 10. The Arakawa-Schubert Cumulus Parameterization

Chapter 11. Implementation of the Arakawa-Schubert Cumulus Parameterization with a Prognostic Closure

Chapter 12. The Kuo Cumulus Parameterization

Chapter 13. A Hybrid Parameterization with Multiple Closures

Chapter 14. An Overview of Cumulus Parameterization in Mesoscale Models

Chapter 15. Convective Parameterization for Mesoscale Models: The Fritsch-Chappell Scheme

Chapter 16. Convective Parameterization for Mesoscale Models: The Kain-Fritsch Scheme

Chapter 17. A Method of Parameterizing Cumulus Transports in a Mesoscale Primitive Equation Model: The Sequential Plume Scheme

Chapter 18. Efficient Cumulus Parameterization for Long-Term Climate Studies: The GISS Scheme

Chapter 19. A Cumulus Representation Based on the Episodic Mixing Model: The Importance of Mixing and Microphysics in Predicting Humidity Chapter 20. Parameterization of Slantwise Convection in Numerical Weather Prediction Models

Chapter 21. A Parameterization Scheme for Symmetric Instability: Tests for an Idealized Flow

Chapter 22. Cumulus Ensemble Simulation